On February 11, the 22rd year of Meiji(1889), Constitution of the Empire of Japan was promulgated signed by Prime Minister Kuroda Kiyotaka, ministers of state and President of Privy Council Ito Hirobumi . Under the Constitution, Emperor exercised sovereign power as the head of state. The people were allowed freedom to choose and change residence, creed, speech, publication, assembly and association, secrecy of correspondence, protection of privately owned property and other rights within law. The Imperial Diet was instituted with rights to deliberate (approve) bills and budgets. Judicial power became independent from executive power and separation of powers (of administration, legislation and judicature) was established.